IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS ON CONSUMERS’ PURCHASE INTENTION: A Study of Indian Consumers ►Ruchi Gupta, Nawal Kishore and DPS Verma
The use of celebrity endorsements in advertising has become a trend and a perceived winning formula of corporate image building and product marketing. As existing media get increasingly cluttered, the need to stand out has become paramount and celebrities have proved to be the ideal way to ensure brand prominence. Research has shown that the use of celebrity endorsers brings many positive effects in terms of positive feelings towards the ad and the brand, a positive brand attitude and increased purchase intention for the brand. Numerous researches have proved empirically the effectiveness and the positive influence of celebrity endorsements in advertising, particularly on purchase intention. However, there is no common consensus on whether attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise of the celebrity endorsers have a significant impact on consumers’ purchase intention. Through a survey of 336 Indian respondents who are exposed to celebrity endorsements for various products/brands, the present study attempts to find out the impact of celebrity endorsements on consumers’ purchase intention. The three-dimensional scale proposed by Roobina Ohanian (1990) has been used for the purpose. Thus, the present study considers three attributes of celebrity endorsements as suggested by Ohanian - attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise. The study also attempts to find out the individual impact of these dimensions on consumers’ purchase intention. Exploratory factor analysis was used to reconfirm the factor structure. The model used was empirically tested for unidimensionality, reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity, using confirmatory factor analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to find out the impact of celebrity endorsements on purchase intention. Results reveal that celebrity endorsements have a significant impact on consumers’ purchase intention. However, the beta coefficients reveal a low degree of correlation between celebrity endorsements and purchase intention. Further, attractiveness and trustworthiness are found to have a significant impact on the purchase intention, while expertise did not have a significant impact on purchase intention.
OIL PRICES, ECONOMIC GROWTH AND INTERNATIONAL RESERVES: Evidence from Middle-Eastern and African Oil-Importing Countries during the Period (2000-2013). ►Malik Qasim Khasawneh
The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the oil price volatility on the economic growth in addition to testing the relationship between oil prices and international reserves in a number of oil importing countries during the period (2000-2013). The study finds that an increase in oil prices has a negative impact on economic growth on these economies during the study period. The study also finds that an increase in oil prices increases the consumer price index and the international reserves. The study uses the descriptive and analytical methods, and so relying on Panel VAR Model and Panel Data model.
Keywords: Consumer Price Index (CPI) , GDP growth, International Reserves, Oil Importing Countries, Oil Prices, Panel Data Model, Panel VAR Model.
THE INFLUENCE OF THE AGE ON THE ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION :A Case of the Moroccan Executives-Engineers ►Taoufik YATRIBI and Said BALHADJ
The objective of this article is to study the influence of the age on the entrepreneurial intention of the Moroccan executives-engineers. The results stemming from analyses of hierarchical regressions realized on a sample of 376 executives-engineers show that the entrepreneurial intention decreases with the increase of the age. The results also show the moderating role of the age between the entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents (Attitude to the behavior and the perceived control). Indeed, it emerges from our study that the entrepreneurial intention is more guided by the "attitude toward behavior" for the young employees than at the seniors, whereas the entrepreneurial intention is more guided by the "perceived control" for the seniors than at the young employees. The theoretical and managerial implications of this research will be presented, and avenues of research will be proposed.
Keywords : Entrepreneurial intention, age, theory of planned behaviour, executive-engineer.
THE ROLE OF MICROFINANCE IN FISHERIES SECTOR: A Case Study of Ibrahim Hyderi District Karachi (EAST) Sindh Pakistan ►Abbas Ali Chandio, Jiang Yuansheng, Mumtaz Ali Joyo, Sanaullah Noonari and Javed Hussain Sahito
The overarching objective of this study was to investigate the role of microfinance in fisheries sector and its development: a case study of Ibrahim Hyderi District Karachi East Sindh. This study was based on primary data and samples of 120 small scales of fishermen were selected through random sampling method. Interview schedule was used as a tool of data collection. The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistical techniques like means, percentages and frequencies distribution etc. The results of this study showed that total cost reported by fishermen was Rs.7665 per day. Whereas, the average yields of fishermen was 37.5 Kg per day at the rate of Rs.400/ Kg. Moreover, the net return earned by fishermen was estimated to be Rs.7335 per day .For return to investment, overall input-output ratio was calculated 1:1.95 and cost benefit ratio was calculated 1:0.95. It is clear that microfinance played a significant role in the development of fisheries sector in Ibrahim Hyderi District Karachi East Sindh. However, since a decade microfinance has been providing small loan and small business loan for fish catching equipment purpose. Our results suggest that ZaraiTaraqiati Bank Limited, Commercial Banks and Microfinance banks should supply credit on flexible terms and conditions which is helpful for small scale fishermen to increase their income and improve life standard. Government of Pakistan should support small scale fishermen through the allocation of proper incentive structure and supply of loans on affordable interest rates. It may be a helpful to strengthen fisheries sector performance and raise the per capita income of a fisherman.
Keywords: Fisheries Sector, Microfinance, Marketing cost, Net return, Cost Benefit-Ratio
LUXURY FASHION CONSUMPTION IN PAKISTAN: Factors Affecting Attitude and Purchase Intent ►Muhammad Ali and Umer Shafique
The objective of this study was to examine what are the factors that affect the attitude of consumers towards luxury fashion goods and its impact on their purchase intention. Data was collected through questionnaires and 112 respondents were included in study. Regression analysis was applied and the results showed that Social Comparison is found to have a positive relationship with the attitude towards the purchasing luxury fashion goods, whereas, Materialism and Fashion Innovativeness are not found to have the positive relationship with attitude towards purchasing luxury fashion goods. There is also no relationship between attitude and purchase intention of customers regarding luxury fashion consumption. The findings of this study have various managerial and practical implications which are further discussed. Limitations of this study are also discussed.