AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNATIONAL AIDS IN THE NIGER DELTA RURAL COMMUNITIES
►Jackson Akpojaro and Chukwuemeka Ugwu Ihesiene
In this paper, we examine the key factors inhibiting effective delivery of international donor-aided interventions in the Niger Delta rural communities from the beneficiaries. We review current intervention issues and challenges with a view to recommending deliberate steps towards ensuring effectiveness in implementation. This study captures survey data from 70 randomly selected rural projects located in the Niger Delta region. The simple percentages, Analysis of Variance and Chi-Square were used in the statistical analysis to predict factors challenging intervention effectiveness by measures of: human capacity deficiency, defective delivery framework, corruption, environmental, policy, and funding problems. The research result identifies defective delivery framework as the most inhibiting factor against effective use of aid in rural communities. Other critical factors in their descending order of gravity include funding, corruption, human capacity, policy and environmental problems. Stakeholders should take urgent steps towards dealing with these factors which inhibit effective intervention delivery through beneficiary-based intervention framework, frantic war against corrupt practices, integration of monitoring and evaluation units (MEU) of local governments, alignment of interventions to national development plan, maintenance of intervention databases to reduce duplication of efforts, and establishment of aid management offices (AMOs) at all levels of government. Therefore, this paper is relevant and of interest to international donor agencies, researchers, policy makers, beneficiaries and other stakeholders of sustainable rural development.
Keywords: Aid, donor, beneficiary, intervention, projects, rural development, Niger Delta
A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF SMES ATTITUDES TOWARDS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA
►Ugwu Chukwuemeka Ihesiene and Jackson Akpojaro
Globally, there is a growing trend towards high dependence on knowledge, information, IT skills and application of these resources within business environments. It is alarming that many small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria are either unwilling or slow at integrating effective IT innovations and practices as indicated by reduced rate of IT expert engagements, trendy preference for hiring computer biased non-professionals to drive IT function as well as infusion of IT units into other departments. This paper therefore discusses these attitudes of SMEs towards IT as bases for recommending remedial approaches to the phenomenon. While the research questions addressed the extent to which inadequate financing, competence, limited knowledge, management perception, nature of business and resistance to change constitute major factors contributing to these attitudes, it posits that trend reversal can be achieved through competitive IT education, adaptive IT framework for SMEs, establishment of IT office as a statutory requirement for SMEs, adequate funding, etc. The study employs a descriptive research design using 100 randomly selected registered SMEs across all sectors of the Nigerian economy. Simple percentages, mean distribution and Chi-Square were used in the statistical analysis to predict factors influencing the undesirable SMEs’ attitudes towards IT. The research results identify management perception as the greatest factor contributing to SMEs’ attitudes. Therefore, this paper is relevant and of interest to all who have a stake in Nigeria’s emerging knowledge based economy.
Keywords: SMEs, innovation, integration, information technology, sustainable development
“IMPACT OF WORK-LIFE BALANCE ON JOB SATISFACTION AMONG SCHOOL TEACHERS OF 21ST CENTURY”
►Uzma Hafeez and Waqar Akbar
Socioeconomic changes, tough global competition and work culture have made employees find difficulty in balancing the two important areas of their life; work and family life which continually keep them under pressure that directed to dissatisfaction of job, as a result of this would in turn into imbalance in their work and private life. Work-life balance is about people having a measure of control over when, where and how they work. It increases effectiveness as well as improves satisfaction, in both the professional as well as personal lives. The success of any institution based on the performance of its employees, which in turn based on various variables. So, the present study aims to examine the “impact of work life balance on job satisfaction amongst elementary school teachers of 21st century”. The paper in hand presents a concise summary of the literature on the value of work –life balance and job satisfaction. The key independent variables work-life balance; long hours of work, pressure/stress on work, intention to change a job, flexible working conditions/environments which serves as an indicator of work-life balance while dependent variable job-satisfaction includes salary level, interpersonal relationship, spend time with family, balance between work and life, staff loyalty as it levers. A survey of 350 school teachers via self administrated questionnaire with the help of quota sampling technique is conducted with the response rate of 83%. Four sets of hypothesis are developed which relate directly to the research question. SPSS 19 is used to perform reliability, descriptive, correlation and regression analysis. The findings suggest that in schools work-life balance has not much impact on teacher’s job-satisfaction. The reason of such results may be due to the uncertain circumstances, the huge rate of inflation and smaller numbers of job opportunities, lack of application of nationwide laws etc. The last section of the paper concludes along with Recommendation to give guidelines for Future Research.
Keywords: work-life balance, job-satisfaction, educational sector, schools, teachers.
CAPABILITIES AND ENTREPRENUERIAL BEHAVIOUR OF EMPLOYEES IN NIGERIAN BEVERAGE INDUSTRY
►Oyedokun Akintunde Jonathan, Adele Hasimiyu Ademola and Adewoye Jonathan Oyerinde
The relationship between capabilities and the entrepreneurial behaviour of employees in the Nigeria beverage industry was examined to determine if individual are at the heart of corporate entrepreneurship in the beverage industry. Eight hypothesis were advance in the study to capture the relationship between each identified capabilities and the innovative and risk taking attitudes of entrepreneurial behaviour of the employees. Structural equation model was deployed to analyse the data collected for the study because of its ability to validate propounded theory and show the multiple relationship among construct following their reliability and validation. The confirmatory factor analysis model displayed good fit following the assessment by three indices – absolute, incremental, parsimony. The result confirmed the test that individual are at the heart of corporate entrepreneurship in the beverage industry and all capabilities are found to have influenced the entrepreneurial behaviour of firms while learning and networking capabilities recorded the highest influence on entrepreneurial behaviour. Managers were therefore recommended to identify and promote capabilities that can stimulate entrepreneurial behaviour of employees. Risk taking behaviour of employees should also be properly managed to avoid demoralization of employees.
Keywords: Capabilities, Entrepreneurial behaviour, Relationship
A QUALITATIVE APPROACH TO EXPLORE THE ROLE OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL PRACTICES (ICP) FOR BANKS’ PERFORMANCES: A Knowledge Base Perspective
►Wasim ul Rehman, Sumaira Rehman and Abdul Rehman
This research study has twofold objectives, first to explore in depth knowledge base view of banks’ professionals regarding the adoption of intellectual capital practices (i.e. human capital, structural capital and relational capital) and second to get know professionals subjective opinions about importance of such practices to obtain sustainable performances of banks in a competitive environment. Based on interpretive phenomenological approach (IPA) the study provides multidimensional realistic implications for top management echelons in banking industry and for future academic researchers. The findings of study reveals that intellectual capital practices are deeply addressed by banks’ professionals. Banks are penetrating regarding the human capital (HC), structural capital (SC) and relational capital (RC) practices to build competitiveness through market share and profitability. Learning and education, employee’s experience and expertise and their innovative and creative abilities are very key constructs of human capital. The study explores fore-mentioned abilities provide substantial contribution for banks’ performance in the shape of market share and profitability. The study presents the subjective opinion of twelve participants from a geographical area (Lahore) however more sample size will provide the parsimonious picture about IC awareness and its implementations to link it with banks’ performances.
Keywords: Intellectual Capital, Human Capital, Structural Capital, Relational Capital Banking Industry, Pakistan