Management Control Patterns in the Traditional Societies: A Case Study in Somalia
►Bashir Abdisamad Hared, Zarifah Abdullah and Sheikh Mohammed Rafiul Huque
This study presents the management control patterns within the business governance of the traditional clannish society in Somalia. The study attempts to understand and report the nature and dynamics of control approaches that are used for business governance in Somalia. A qualitative case study was used to gather the data. Semi-structured interviews with the top executive directors, observation and document analyses were employed to triangulate the data sources. The findings of the study show the role of traditional cultural settings on the control systems in Somalia’s traditional context. The prevalent control patterns include clannish ownership, paternal leadership, friendship and horizontal relationships, verbal communication and selective employment of owners and staff. These control patterns have promoted centralization of decisions including; performance measurement, incentives management and restricted financial information. The outcome of the study calls for further researches to better understand management controls, particularly that of the developing nations.
Keywords: management control patterns, business governance, traditional societies
Impact of Wage on Human Resource Management in Period of Crisis: The Case of Viet Nam Firm
►Nguyen Thi Lac Thu and Xiao Xiang
Human resource also known as an employee is the most important factor in the development of the organization. Therefore, the role of human resource management (HRM) in each organization also need excite employees realize their important position in the organization. Thus encourage their dedication in order to enhance operational performance of the organization. Besides that, the operation of HRM is also to create the balance between employee interest and organization’s interest. One of the important factors which the employees concern is wage. So, HRM and wage is related. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the relationship between the HRM and working efficiency based on the wage in a period of crisis in Viet Nam. Therefore, we selected Huong Giang’s travel company (HG Co) as objects to research on that relationship.
Keywords: Human resources management, wage, crisis, working efficiency, Viet Nam
Accounting Information System as an Aid to Decision Making In Food and Beverages Companies in Nigeria
Adebayo, Mudashiru, Idowu, K.A, Yusuf, Babatunde and Bolarinwa, S.A.
This study tends to critically examine the impact of accounting information system in assisting organizations in making sound and effective decision. The major source of data to this research is primary data through the administration of questionnaires. Regression analysis and Karl Pearson’s correlation was used for the data analysis. The findings show that accounting information system is an indispensable tool in decision making in today’s turbulent world. Organizations are however, advised to invest on information technology tools as it improve their efficiency, effectiveness and their overall performance.
Keywords: Accounting Information, Food and Beverage, Nigeria
Empowering Employees for Enhanced Firm Performance in Zimbabwe’s Manufacturing Sector: The Case for Bulawayo Based Manufacturers.
►Samuel M. Gumbe and Isaac Chaneta
Zimbabwean firms particularly those in manufacturing have been greatly affected by the opening up of the economy which has seen the influx of cheaper foreign goods. This has created intense competition for the sector as customers opt for the more affordable foreign products. The result of this competition has been the decline of capacity utilisation by the local manufacturers which has also been accompanied by firms closing down, retrenching staff or at times refusing to award salaries that match the poverty datum line as they seek to survive. On the other hand, employees faced with possibility of losing employment or earning low salaries have accused employers/managers of being self-centered in the decision making process. It is for this reason that this study was carried out to ascertain the extent of employee empowerment in Zimbabwe’s manufacturing sector. The study is confined to large scale manufacturers who are on Confederation of Zimbabwe Industries (CZI) register operating in Bulawayo,the 2nd capital city of the country. The study uses the qualitative approach and is case study of Bulawayo based manufacturers. Proportional representation is used to draw a sample 33 firms from 16 strata that make up the sub-sectors of the country’s manufacturing sector. The study findings reveal that the sampled firms are moderately high on engaging employees in empowerment programmes. However the findings also reveal that managers, to a large extent, treat employee contributions as only fairly important. Thus the study concludes that there are fa8irly low levels of employee empowerment in the sector in Bulawayo. The study recommends that as a way of raising employee levels of empowerment, the firms should adopt the Strategic Human Resources Management and the Total Quality Management Approach.
Keywords: Empowerment, manufacturing sector, quality circles; commitment and motivation
Synergy in HR and Strategies, a Contemporary Need for the Pakistan Pharmaceutical Industry
►Ehtasham Ghauri and Don McMurray
The empirical evidence laid out in this paper analyses the current human resource management (HRM) practices and their strategic orientation in the Pakistan pharmaceutical industry. The study emphasises and exhibits the evidence for the need to align human resource (HR) and organisational strategies, and objectives in order to retain competitive advantage, knowledge workers and achieve long term strategic objectives. This research is based on multiple qualitative in-depth case studies conducted in the industry, and recommendations indicated in the paper are based upon the empirical findings and synergistic evidence from contemporary western literature. The absence of formal HR functions in 50% of the organisations in the industry and still clerks looking after HR matters, transpire a message for organisational strategists and decision makers that 20th century personnel practices and strategies in today’s dynamic economy may not enable organisations to sustain businesses, achieve strategic objectives and gain competitive advantage. This further points out the reality that organisations even in a developing country like Pakistan cannot be an island anymore in modern and dynamic interconnected global business sphere, and may be easily displaced by organisations from other parts of the world. In order to sustain businesses, retain knowledge workers and attain competitive advantage, it is crucial that HR strategies in the industry are to be aligned to long term strategic objectives, to every functional level and especially revenue generating sales and business development functions of an organisation. This can facilitate an organisation, that employees at every level will have a converged and unified view of organisational and functional strategic objectives. The essentiality of HR practices and HR functions perceived by this study respondents and the evidence from organisations implementing better HR practices advocate that organisations in the industry can also leverage from these practices in obtaining competitive advantage, achieving strategic objectives and retaining their knowledge workers. This further creates the need that other organisations within and out of the industry should be benchmarked for advancement in HR practices and strategies.
Keywords: Human resources, Strategic Human Resource Management, Strategic alignment, Competitive advantage, Pakistan, Sales employees
Observation of Good Faith Principle in Contract Negotiations: A Comparative Study with Emphasis on International Instruments
►Ebrahim Shoarian Sattari
Good Faith is one of the important principles in contract law. This principle is inherited from Roman law and it has been mostly developed in civil law system. Observation of Good faith and Fair dealing in French and German law and many other countries is considered as legal obligation. Good faith, also, is of special stand In Chinese law of contract. Since Good faith is considered as important and valuable, it has been recognized in Common Law System and adopted in English and American law. Islamic law also contains numerous examples of obligations that are based on Good Faith principle. Nowadays, good faith principle has been incorporated in important international instruments such as CISG, UPICC, PECL, and DCFR and its scope has been developed. If good faith principle was being considered in fulfilling of contracts, today it also is considered as important in pre-contractual and conclusion stages of contracts. The aforementioned documents contain regulations for observing good faith in preliminary negotiations, conclusion of contract, fulfilling of contract and the interpretation thereto. The present Article is attempted to show that Good faith is important in all stages including preliminary negotiation and it should be incorporated in domestic legislations. Remedy for breach of this duty in the pre-contractual sphere should be limited only to compensation for damages.
Keywords: Good Faith, Contract Negotiations, legal Systems, International Instruments