The Impact of External Drivers on Women Entrepreneurs Perception towards Supplier Performance in Nigerian SME Practices: The Mediating Effect of Enforcement Mechanisms ►Mohammed Sangiru Umar, Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid, Aliyu Isah Chikaji, Nana Aisha Kaigama and Jummai Aliyu Mohammed
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to critically examine the influence of government policies, customers, competitors as a driver and to some extent interventions to women entrepreneurship motivation in relation to its impact on social enforcement mechanism and supplier performance. The environment where women embark on entrepreneurial activities was articulated as one of the conditioned factors. Coupled with the harsh credit facilities and segregated opportunity prevailing itself to curtailed the untold hardships faced by women entrepreneurs for the success of their respective businesses which is not far from SME. This in turn influences the women entrepreneurs towards utilization of the available governance mechanism in nurturing their channel network relationship in achieving supplier performance. Even with burgeon of empirical investigation of the impact of institutional pressures on environmental practices, how these drivers affects social assets towards realization of supplier performance remains unclear. Social enforcement is seen as one of the alternatives used to curtailed supplier opportunism in realization of superior supplier performance. How does the social enforcement enhance supplier performance as a result of institutional pressures in the Nigerian women’s micro, small and medium scale enterprise is still novel and unexplored? Keywords: External Drivers, Social Enforcement Mechanism, Supplier Performance, Women Entrepreneurs
The Moderating Effect of Technology Awareness on the Relationship between UTAUT Constructs and Behavioural Intention to Use Technology: A Conceptual Paper ►Faruq Muhammad Abubakar and Hartini B. Ahmad
ABSTRACT The volume and value of cash-based transactions in Nigeria is high and expected to rise. This is liked to non-adoption of new e-payment process introduced by the Central Bank. The adoption of Point of Sale (POS) terminal is reported to be very low. A number of researchers have used several technology adoption theories to answer a similar phenomenon, but their studies were fragmented. Thus the Unified Theory of acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) combined eight among those numerous theories and models of technology adoption, toward a unified view. However, several studies that used UTAUT and investigate behavioural intention to use technology yielded conflicting findings. Therefore this paper, based on review of past literature, conceptualised that ‘technology awareness’ moderates the relationship between performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and behavioural intention to use POS. Keywords: Retail business, technology adoption, strategic change, e-commerce
Stakeholders’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practises towards Health Tourism Development in Zimbabwe. ►Mapingure Charity, Mamimine Patrick Walter, Kabote Forbes, Mirimi Kumbirai and Nyarota Margaret
ABSTRACT This research explored the feasibility of developing health tourism in Zimbabwe using knowledge levels, attitudes of stakeholders and current practises as barometers of the destination’s potential. Researchers conducted in-depth interviews with tourism experts, hoteliers and tour operators in Harare (capital city of Zimbabwe). The major findings of the study on knowledge, attitudes and practices were that knowledge level on health tourism was high among hoteliers and tourism experts, with tour operators exhibiting little knowledge. In terms of attitude, hoteliers were quite positive about the adoption of health tourism while tourism experts were pessimistic about health tourism’s potential to provide a return on investment. On current health tourism practises the study revealed that there were health packages offered by hotels to a limited extent and only as a requirement for their grading. Nevertheless, an overarching insight from the study was that development of health tourism was a possibility in Zimbabwe if marketed in tandem with existing `anchor’ attractions such as Victoria Falls and others of a similar international stature and appeal. Keywords: Health Tourism, Stakeholder Attitudes, Knowledge, Practises
Achieving Price Stability in Nigeria: Monetary Policy Rate Approach vs. Foreign Exchange Policy Approach ►Ezekiel Oseni
ABSTRACT Earlier studies have reached a consensus that monetary policies generate more economic activities than fiscal policies in developing economies. This study has bridged the existing gaps in earlier studies by addressing the question of which of the instruments of macroeconomics is more effective in achieving price stability remains largely unanswered. The study observed that the presence of exogenous factor was responsible for the inability of the tight monetary policies of the CBN to mob excess liquidity from the economy. In the same vein, the exogenous factor destabilizes the steady economic growth that would have emanated from a relaxed monetary policy. The study also found foreign exchange rates (fx) to be a more effective instrument to achieving price stability than monetary policy rates (mpr). The Nigerian economy is largely import dependent with most of the importation being consumable goods and services and less of productive (capital) goods. The impact of changes in fx are more pronounced on the economy than changes in the interest rates. The attainment of price stability would become feasible if the apex bank accords priority to the formulation and deployment of foreign exchange policies that are sound in principle and effective in practice. Keywords: Foreign exchange, interest rates, monetary policies, price stability.