AN EVALUATION OF STAFF MOTIVATION, DISSATISFACTION AND JOB PERFORMANCE IN AN ACADEMIC SETTING
►Mohammed Abubakar Mawoli and Abdullahi Yusuf Babandako
This study seeks to ascertain academic staff level of motivation, dissatisfaction and performance at work. The study employed a survey research method to collect research data from academic staff of Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Nigeria. A total of 141 or 64% of the academic staff of the University were sampled out of a population of 219 academic staff. Descriptive statistical tools were used to measure the research variables. The study reveals that academic staffs are very highly motivated at work and also highly contented with the working environment. The study further revealed that staff performance as it relates to teaching is very high while their performance in the areas of research and other publications is moderate. It is therefore recommended that universities and other tertiary institutions should take the issue if academic staff motivation seriously to facilitate effective teaching and delivery of knowledge.
Keywords: Motivation, Teaching Performance, Research Performance, Academic Staff, Uni
Interface between IPR and Human Rights: A Study with Reference to International Law
►Nashat Mahmoud Abdalla Jaradat
This research work aims to establish a link between IPR and human rights in the national and international perspectives. Furthermore, lack of implementation of legislations at the national level is one of the greatest setbacks in the history of human rights protection. Basically, the value of human rights is largely tested by it’s implementation. The earlier form of Industrial property underwent transformation after the Paris Convention to be nomenclature as Intellectual property. IPRs, such as patents, plant variety protection, copyrights, and trademarks, are exclusive monopoly rights over a creation that the society provides to the inventor for a period of time. While such monopoly protection obviously restricts the dissemination of knowledge, it is supposed to be counterbalanced by the incentive that it provides to innovate. Intrinsic, natural, interrelated, indivisible, inalienable, basic, instrumental and inherent rights are ought to be protected if required, for maintaining peace in the society. Imperialism, colonialism and inequalities among the states were some reasons of concern for the development of human rights.
Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights, Interface, Human Rights, Copyright, Trademark.
The use of Grey System Theory in predicting the road traffic accident in Fars province in Iran
►Ali Mohammadi, leyla Moradi, Ahmad Talebnejad and Abdolreza Nadaf
Traffic accidents have become a more and more important factor that restrict the development of economy and threaten the safety of human beings. Considering the complexity and uncertainty of the influencing factors on traffic accidents, traffic accident forecasting can be regarded as a grey system with unknown and known information, so be analyzed by grey system theory. Grey models require only a limited amount of data to estimate the behavior of unknown systems. In this paper, first, the original predicted values of road traffic accidents are separately obtained by the GM (1,1) model, the Verhulst model and the DGM(2,1) model. The results of these models on predicting road traffic accident show that the forecasting accuracy of the GM(1,1) is higher than the Verhulst model and the DGM(2,1) model. Then, the GM(1,1) model is applied to predict road traffic accident in Fars province.
Keywords: Road traffic accident, Grey system theory, The GM(1.1) model, Forecasting.
PERSONALITY PROFILE OF F&B STAFF IN MALAYSIA
►Fakhrul Zaman Abdullah and Farah Liyana Bustamam
Being part of the ‘people oriented’ industry, hotel organizations are to abide by the fact that their performances are measured through customers’ satisfaction. Due to this, human capital has been identified to be one of the key factors in determining the success or failure of a business. Hence, it is crucial for hotel organizations to select the right people with the right personality to represent the organizations. This study sought to investigate the personality profile of hotels’ Food and Beverage employees in Malaysia. A total of thirty-six (36) 4-star and 5-star hotels in Kuala Lumpur were involved and 165 employees participated in this study. Data were collected through self-administered survey questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and reliability analysis were used in the data analysis. According to the empirical analytic results, among the five personality traits, four (4) of the sub variables scored moderately high mean score with Extroversion (M=3.51, SD=.69), Openness (M=3.62, SD=.68), Agreeableness (M=3.51, SD=.53) and Conscientiousness (M=3.54, SD=.83) while Neuroticism scored moderate mean (M=3.37, SD=.60).
Keywords: Personality, food and beverage employee, hotels
THE STUDY OF BARRIERS TO ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MEN AND WOMEN
►Mohammad Bagher Gorji and Paria Rahimian
The present study aims to investigate the barriers to individual entrepreneurship as well as comparing them in men and women population. This study was applied, correlation-survey method. Using field method, the data are collected from 113 men entrepreneurs and 65 women entrepreneurs. One questionnaire whose validity and reliability is verified by content and Cranach’s a methods is also used to collect the research data. To analyze the data, T-test and ANOVA are used. The results indicated that there is a meaningful difference between individual and environmental barriers to entrepreneurship and order of effectiveness of barriers in men and women.
Keywords: individual, entrepreneurship, barriers, comparative
INDIA-U.K. Trade: A phenomenon of sliding scenario
►S M Shafi
Until 1973 when U.K., was not the member of European Community (now European Union , India’s trade was not geographically as diversified. This was purely due to the reason that India’s Trade was almost exclusively with U.K. Indian merchandise would find other destinations in the European continent only as re-exports from Britishers. India’s trade relations with U.K., are based upon long nourished relationship fostered during British rule in India with British East India Company as its promotor plateform. Based upon mutual trust between the trading communities of the two countries and facilitated with market opportunities, the relationship got further stronger even after India’s independence from Britain. However, with U.K. joining European Union, India’s trade started getting diversified and trade volumes with U.K started showing falling trends. The present paper traces out the behaviour of falling trade scenario with U.K.
Keywords: India, England, Imports, Exports, CAGR, Commodity Groups, Harmonized System, DGFT.
Adjustment Behaviours of Dividend Payouts in G7 Countries: A Different Look
►Joshua Seungwook Bahng, Hyonsok Lee and Hyeong Chul Jeong
The topic of the dividend adjustment behaviours of firms in G7 countries was analysed in this study. After dividing the entire sample of firms into countries and separating listed, delisted, and unlisted firms by their listing type, we investigated the question using quantile regressions. Our analyses provided the following results. First, payout ratios showed decreasing tendencies irrespective of both country origin and listing types. Second, the speeds of dividend adjustment in Japan and Italy were estimated to be the fastest by quantile, whereas that of Canadian firms was estimated to be the slowest. Third, when the same issue was examined for listing types, unlisted firms showed the fastest speed of adjustment. In general, the estimated curves for both the speed of adjustment and the required time for partial adjustment were found to be cross-sectionally unstable and nonlinear with respect to dividend levels.
Keywords: Dividend Policy; G7 market; Speed of Adjustment; Quantile Regression
An Analysis of Globalization and Higher Education in Malaysia
►Anantha Raj A. Arokiasamy
This study aims to examine the impact of globalization on private higher education in Malaysia. The impact of globalization and the development of knowledge-based economy have caused much dramatic change to the character and functions of higher education in Malaysia. The major trend is the reforming and restructuring of private higher education in Malaysia to make it more competitive globally. If Malaysia is serious in turning into an “education hub”, strategies and policies have to be in place to attract international students to study with a local university with international standards.
Keywords: Higher education, the impact of globalization, Ministry of Higher Education’s (MOHE) role, major trends and policies.
Employee Training and Development in Nigerian Organisaitons: Some Observations and Agenda for Research
The ultimate aim of any training program is to add value and once a training program cannot add value, it should be reworked or altogether cancelled. Without training, it will be very difficult to acquire skills and without skills organizations will not achieve its objectives through people. Some organizations see training as an expensive venture and may put embargo on training and utilize the money for other projects in the organization. Organizations must encourage learning organizations through its serious approach to training and development. A leadership organization is one which continuously enhances the skills of its entire workforce. Organizations should show in words and indeed its resolve to place high emphasis on training by having a training philosophy, identifying training needs, training objectives, training administration and also evaluating training needs. It is discovered that organizations show poor attitude to training administration by not preparing and equipping their trainees before, during and after a training program. More importantly, research efforts should be devoted to identifying missing gaps in the reviewed materials. Priority would be given to empirical analysis of the significance of identifying specific and appropriate needs before venturing into training and the reason why training fails.
Keywords: Training, Development, Nigerian Organizations.
EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL GROWTH
Organizational performance and its resultant efficiency and effectiveness can only be achieved when individuals are continuously appraised and evaluated. The inability of organization to install an effective performance appraisal strategy has hindered them from achieving competitive advantage which they require more now than ever before. Appraisal processes are not systematic and regular and often characterized by personal influences occasioned by organizations preoccupation to use confidential appraisal system which hinders objectivity and fairness. Often organizations ignore management by objectives, critical incidents to personal prejudices. This is retrogressive as it affects the overall performance of the individual. 360 degrees appraisal method whereby superiors and the appraise their subordinates, subordinates appraise their superior and the appraisee appraise himself or herself and the average of all the appraisal taken to arrive at the final appraisal outcome should be now be considered by organizations. Also post appraisal counseling whereby the appraisal outcomes are analyzed to explain strengths and weaknesses and set agenda for better future performance. Organizations should stop giving less attention to the evaluation of their employees and recognize that organizational training needs can only be identified from performance appraisal outcomes. It is an invaluable tool but in the hands of human resource management officers to continuously evaluates and audits the performance of its employees in other to help organizations win competitive advantage.
Keywords: Employee Performance appraisal, Organizational growth, performance.
Multinational Channel Strategy and Customer Value in an Emerging Economy
►Fredrick O. Aila, Hazel Mumbo; Odhiambo Odera; Gerald Ondiek; Jairo K. Mise and Eddy Owaga
This paper examines the impact of multinational channel strategy on customer value by assessing customer demand side issues. It assess the relationship between order cycle time, stock availability and sales to describe the impact of distribution strategy on customer value. The study was carried in locations comprised of Equator Bottlers Limited franchise territory within five districts in Western Kenya. A cross-section survey using a structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was prepared for analysis by editing, coding, categorizing and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Majority of distributors were found to be located within the major urban areas of Kisumu and Kericho as a result of proximity to the plant and high rates of consumption. In order to increase the value offered to customers, there is need to reduce order cycle times to the bare minimum of one day for stock replenishment.
Keywords: Multinationals corporations, channel strategy, customer value, emerging economy
The Effect of Intellectual Property Rights and Information and Communication Technology on Human Development Index in Developing Countries During 2005-2010
►Abdolali Monsef, Majid Sameti and Mahsa Mojahednia
Recently the effect of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on human development index (HDI) is a new subject which has been considered in economics. Most of the economists believe that not paying enough attention to IPR would prevent the economical growth and development. On the other hand, different nations will have developed human resources when in addition to institutions and certain rules, the people of the society invent new things and the development in ICT can be the reason. The main purpose of this article is to study the effects of IPR and ICT on HDI in developing countries during 2005-2010. In this study we use panel data and the indicators from United Nations Human Development Report (UNDP) and World Bank.
Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights, Information and Communication Technology, Gross National Income per capita, Human Development Index.
FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR
►Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin and M M Nurul Kabir
The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction & suggestions to improve them.
Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Job Dissatisfaction, Motivation.
RECENT RELATED RESEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL: A LITERATURE REVIEW
►Shih-Chih Chen, Shing-Han Li and Chien-Yi Li
Technology Acceptance Model is widely applied to access users’ usage in various information system/information technology areas. Learning the critical role of Technology Acceptance Model can guide researchers to design different users’ interface for different online customers, and consequently achieve high user usage in different application areas. This study reviewed 24 studies to understand the past, now and future of Technology Acceptance Model. We discussed the related studies to clarify the extension of Technology Acceptance Model. Besides, the application areas are elaborated including electronic service, mobile data service, self-service technology, electronic learning and so on. Finally, the article concluded the conclusions and future research direction.
Keywords: Technology Acceptance Model, Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, Attitude, Behavioral Intention