NON-DATABASE CUSTOMER AS SPATIAL ISSUES OF ESTIMATING HYPERMARKET’S LIFETIME VALUE: AN APPROACH OF SURVEY-GIS METHOD
►Abdul Manaf Bohari, Ruslan Rainis and Malliga Marimuthu
Prospecting hypermarket lifetime value is vital important to predict how long the business will be survive in the marketplace as important as measured the profitability of the business. Mostly, the hypermarket has been used database customer as main resources of predicting their customer without consider any data from non-database customer, which also called “free customer”. In fact, non-customer is spatial-based information where never tied with hypermarket database of customer. This is actually the gaps that exist in prospecting customer lifetime value where most of study was aimed on database customer and also lacks in tied spatial-based information to the hypermarket’s customer database. The objective of this paper is to discuss non-database customer as spatial issues during estimating the profitability of hypermarket business. Secondly, this study is aimed to demonstrate the location of non-database customer as base platform for further works on prospecting customer lifetime value. The method use in this study is combination survey-GIS as solution for handle non-database customer in spatial environment. Specifically, Arcview software (GIS) is used as main method for modelling the physical location of marketplace. Meanwhile, a postal address of non-database customer which is collected from survey is used for testing under the physical model of marketplace location. The Seberang Perai Tengah of Penang in Malaysia is setting as location of the study. One of the result shows that non-database customer can visualized individually by specific location that based on street and road. This study will suggest on how to used spatial data as a part of predicting lifetime value of customer where it can produced results in more precise and concurrently.
Keywords: Non-Database Customer, Spatial Issues, Hypermarket, Lifetime Value, Survey-GIS Method
INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL PERFORMANCE AND ITS IMPACT ON CORPORATE PERFORMANCE: AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM MODARABA SECTOR OF PAKISTAN. Wasim ul Rehman
►Chaudhary Abdul Rehman, Hafeez ur Rehman and Ayesha Zahid
The aim of study of this is to examine the Intellectual Performance (IC) of 12 Modaraba companies and its impact on corporate performance. This study examines the performance of three main components of VAIC™ i.e. Human Capital Efficiency (HCE), Structural Capital Efficiency (SCE) and Capital Employed Efficiency (CEE) and its impact on corporate performance by employing the predictive analysis. The empirical results reveal that one of the important components to strengthen the IC performance is Human Capital Efficiency (HCE) which means investing more to boost the employees productive would increase the human efficiency of employees. The results show that HCE has significant relation at (P>0.1) with financial performance (ROE and EPS), SCE at (P >0.1) and (P>0.05) with financial performance (ROE) and (EPS) respectively. Whereas CEE has substantive effect with ROE and ROI at (P>0.05) and with (EPS) at (P>0.1) respectively.
Keywords: Intellectual Capital (IC), Value Added (VA), Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC™), Human Capital Efficiency (HEC), Structural Capital Efficiency (SCE), Capital Employed Efficiency (CEE), (ROE), (ROI), (EPS), Modaraba Companies, Pakistan.
A PILOT STUDY FOR UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIPS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM QUALITY, RELATIONSHIP QUALITY AND LOYALTY
INVESTIGATION THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB TRAITS AND JOB STRESS (Case study: Shahed University staff and professors)
►GholamReza Jandaghi, Sayed Mojtaba Hosseini Fard, Mohammad Saadatmand, Ismaeil Chezani Sharahi and Mahtab Rajabi
Stress is a highly serious problem in today world which endangers physical and mental health of individuals. Today organization is a location seriously influenced by stress. As a calamity, stress in organizations weakens and destroys operations and also can promote the organization. There are paramount evidences on the destructive effects of job stress on physical and mental health as well as organizational productivity. Job or job traits are factors that highly impact on stress at organization. In present probe, we study the impacts of job traits on job stress by using Hackman and Oldham job traits model. Below, the relationship between job traits and stress was investigated by two questionnaires (job traits and job stress). Research population in Shahed University’s comprehensive plan with 123 subjects (45 professors and 78 employees) who are selected as available among statistical population. For Information analysis we used descriptive & inferential statistics (Correlation Coefficient). The results are as following:There is a positive and significant relationship between job major aspects and job stress (At Confidence Interval of 90%) of professors while there is no significant and positive relationship between job major aspects and job stress of employees.
Keywords: job major aspects, Job traits, job stress, organization, Hackman and Oldham model.
TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN LAGOS STATE OF NIGERIA
►Yunus Adeleke Dauda and Waidi Adeniyi Akingbade
The state of technology in any organization has a significant influence on the quality and quantity of production of its goods or services. But despite this, technology is prone to constant change which organizations have to monitor, manage and cope with. Manufacturing industry that will like to be competitive and profitable should ensure that employees are trained and involved in the management of technological change for organizational survival. But most organization tends to undermine the contribution of employee in managing technological change, the outcome of which are low profitability and performance. This paper examines how employee relation could be employed for technological change management. It also seeks to determine effective method of using technological innovation for improved performance in the Nigerian manufacturing industry. Two hypotheses were formulated to determine the relationship between technological change and employee skill; and between technological change and employee performance. Question based on the hypotheses were formulated and 1256 questionnaires were distributed to selected 30 manufacturing industry in beverages, textile, steel, cement and chemical industry in Nigeria. Findings reveal that employee relations do not have significant relationship with technological change. The paper recommends that employee relation should be considered in the management technological change for profitability, competitiveness and survival of the Nigerian Manufacturing industry.
Keywords: Technological Change, Employee Performance, Manufacturing Industry.
IMPACT OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT ON CORPORATE PRODUCTIVITY: AN EVALUATIVE STUDY
►Obasan Kehinde , A
A wide divergence of opinion exists on the source and effect of conflicts on corporate productivity and the effectiveness of the various strategies available for managing them. It has been argued by some that conflicts are signs of a vibrant organization while others contend it is destructive and capable of retarding stability and profitability of organizations. Using a student t distribution to test the significance of response and purposive sampling technique to administer a self-design questionnaires to 50 respondents cutting across all cadres of staff of First Bank of Nigeria Plc.,(Lagos Branch), revealed that the main sources of conflict in the organization relate to perception and value problems. The specific issues bother on employee compensation and welfare while managers prefer the compromise, problem solving and dominating strategies to minimizing the incidence of organisational conflicts. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that strategies which promote industrial democracy should be chosen by management as the preferred option in dispute resolution. In addition, the ideal level of conflict resolution required to attain optimum performance for every organisation is unique and situational hence managers are duty bound to establish the best maintainable by the organisation.
Keywords: conflict, management, productivity, strategy
SUPREME FLOOD AND ITS IMPACT ON POVERTY IN RURAL SINDH
►Nadeem Bhatti, Muhammad Bachal Jamali, Ikhtiar Ahmed Ghumro and Faiz.M.Shaikh
The main aim of this paper is to examine the Supreme flood and its impact on poverty in rural Sindh. Data were collected from 5000 households from six districts i.e. Kashmore, Kamber Shahdadkot Shikarpur, Dadu, Larkana and Jacobabad Sindh by using the simple random technique; a structural questionnaire was design as an instrument tool for measuring the poverty. It was revealed that the poverty position in Jacobabad and Shikarpur is worsening compare with Larkana and Sukkur. There are other factors like tribal disputes among various tribes and law and order situation most of the businesses people shift their business from Jacobabad and Shikarpur. Access to health and education facilities all districts have slight variation except Jacobabad where the literacy ratio is pretty low. It was revealed that recent supreme flood hit common man and poverty level is increases because it was estimated that loss of livestock and crop loss affected he common man in the flood affected areas.
Keywords: Supreme Flood , Poverty, Sindh
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING DYNAMICS IN THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS
►Anyim C. Francis, Elegbede Tunde and Mariam A. Gbajumo-Sheriff
The objective of this paper is to examine the dynamics of collective bargaining machinery in both the public and private sectors in Nigeria; with a view to bringing to the fore the peculiarities associated with both sectors with regard to the practice of bargaining. To achieve this objective, the paper adopts a theoretical approach. The author observes that the practice of industrial relations as a discipline and that of collective bargaining in particular emanated from the private sector the world over. Thus, much of the practices of public sector collective bargaining are modelled after the private sector collective bargaining. However, in Nigeria, the obverse is the case as collective bargaining gained its root in the public sector owing to the near absence of private sector at the turn of the century. However, in Nigeria, the public sector pays lip-service to the collective bargaining machinery. Governments at all levels (Federal, State and Local) have continued to set aside collective bargaining and to give wage awards to score political points in spite of its commitment to the ILO Convention 98 to freely bargain with workers. The State or the government in the course of regulating wages and employment terms and conditions revert to the use of wage commissions. Thus, wage determination is by fiat. This preference for wage commissions can at best be regarded as a unilateral system as collective bargaining is relegated to the background.Wage tribunals or commissions offer little opportunity for workers’ contribution in the determination of terms and conditions of employment and can hardly be viewed as bilateral or tripartite. Thus, the State preference for wage commissions is anti-collective bargaining. In spite of Nigeria’s commitment to Conventions of the ILO with particular reference to such Conventions as 87 of 1948 and 98 of 1949 which provide for freedom of association and the right of workers to organize and bargain collectively. Thus, the use of wage commissions is antithetical to collective bargaining.
Keywords: Collective Bargaining Dynamics, Public and Private Sectors
DETERMINANTS OF INFLATION IN PAKISTAN: AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS USING JOHANSEN CO-INTEGRATION APPROACH
►Furrukh Bashir, Shahbaz Nawaz, Kalsoom Yasin, Usman Khursheed, Jahanzeb Khan and Muhammad Junaid Qureshi
Inflation is regarded as regressive taxation against the poor. The most visible impact of inflation in recent times is its effect on real output, relative prices, taxes and interest rates. The study focuses to examine demand side and supply side determinants of inflation in Pakistan on economic and econometric criterion and also to investigate causal relationships among some macroeconomic variables. For that purpose, study has undertaken time series data for the period from 1972 to 2010. Long run and short run estimates have been investigated using Johansen Co-integration and Vector Error Correction approached. Causal relationships have been observed using Granger causality test. Data on macroeconomic variables have been selected from Handbook on Statistics of Pakistan 2010. The findings of the study reveal that in the long run consumer price index has found to be positively influenced by money supply, gross domestic product, imports and government expenditures on the other side government revenue is reducing overall price level in Pakistan. Long run elasticities of Price level with respect to money supply, gross domestic product, government expenditures, government revenue and imports are 0.61, 0.73, 0.32, -1.37 and 0.41 respectively. In the short run, last year consumer price index and two years before government revenue are directly involved in enhancing consumer price index of current year. Improvement in gross domestic product and government expenditures is necessary but it is suggested that there should be optimal level for all of them so that price level should be stable.
Keywords: Consumer price index, Government expenditures, gross domestic product, Johansen Co-integration technique, Money supply, Long run elasticities.
BUYER SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN BARGAINING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES
►Chutinon Putthiwanit and Shu-Hsun Ho
This study aims to investigate the process of buyers’ subsequent attitudes and subsequent actions and their relationships depended on the bargaining outcomes. Depth interviews were employed in order to explore the success, the failure, and the consequent actions in dyadic bargaining under the condition of one buyer and one seller. Ten international respondents were invited to be interviewed. Approximately one hour of each interview is taken, while English is the medium of the interviews. After the interviews, respondents were given five USD as an incentive. The results show that successful bargainers tended to be younger people and easterner, compared to unsuccessful bargainers who tended to be older people and westerner. When buying product in computer and vehicle category, it might provide higher chance in getting the discount, while buying product in garment category gave the partial tendency to win the bargain. Since garment seems to have fewer profit margins when compared to the other category like computer or vehicle, it thus is obligatory for the seller to avoid discounting this kind of product. During the interviews, author found that confident interviewees shared their successful bargaining experiences; whereas, interviewees with very calm and quiet attitude seemed to express about their unsuccessful bargaining stories. This research also provides insights of buyer as bargainer profoundly. It therefore helps the seller, especially in computer, garment, and vehicle industry, knows how to balance mutual-interest and maintain the strong relationship with customer.
Keywords: Bargaining, Negotiation, Price, Buyer-seller relationship, Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction
APPLYING TOPSIS AND QSPM METHODS IN FRAMEWORK SWOT MODEL: CASE STUDY OF THE IRAN’S STOCK MARKET
►Mahsa Beidokhty nejad, Nina Pouyan and Mohammad reza shojaee
The Stock Exchange today, is one of the pillars of the capital market financing in countries. The history of market activity in Iran dates back 43 years ago, Despite this history due to structural problems, people's ignorance and limited activities inside the country still has not got an appropriate place in the country and in economic and financial areas. In This article for the first time, the Iran’s stock market SWOT analysis has been practiced. In this regard weaknesses ,strengths, opportunities and threats points of the Iran’s stock market ,through Delphi and questionnaire were gathered and ultimately through the internal and external factor Evaluation, SWOT matrixes the data has been analyzed and with QSPM and TOPSIS models, strategy has been codified to improve the performance of this market.
Keywords: Analysis SWOT, Iran’s stock market, IFEM, EFEM, QSPM matrix
ELUSIVE FACTORS INFLUENCING SHARE VALUES: AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT
►OYEDOKUN, Akintunde, Jonathan., AWOREMI, Joshua, Remi. and ODEYEMI, Joshua, Taiwo.
The paper examined the elusive factors influencing share value in the Nigeria oil and gas industry with the aim of determining their effect and the extent to which they influenced share value. A simple random technique was used to select three of the six listed oil and gas companies on the Nigeria stock exchange. A stratified random technique was then used to select respondent in the functional department across the selected oil and gas industry. Both secondary and primary data were involved in the study. Stepwise regression analysis was used to capture the relative contribution and effect of the factors on share value. The results exhibit a strong relationship between the oil and gas industry market value and the elusive factors -Innovation, human capital, and supply chain management. Innovation was indentified to be the major driving force adding value to the Nigerian oil and gas industry, followed by human capital development and supply chain management.
Keywords: Innovation, Human capital development, Supply chain management, Nigeria.
IMPACT OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS ON POVERTY, A CASE STUDY OF SINDH
►Anwar Ali Shah G.Syed, Nanik Ram, Khalid Shaikh, Syed Abir Hussain Naqvi and Faiz.M.Shaikh
The main aim of this paper is examine social and economic factors that are responsible for the poverty in rural Sindh. Data were collected from 2500 households from four districts i.e. Shikarpur, Larkana, Sukkur, and Jacobabad of upper Sindh by using the simple random technique; a structural questionnaire was design as an instrument tool for measuring the poverty. It was revealed that the poverty position in Jacobabad and Shikarpur is worsening compare with Larkana and Sukkur. There are other factors like tribal disputes among various tribes and law and order situation most of the businesses people shift their business from Jacobabad and Shikarpur. Access to health and education facilities all districts have slight variation except Jacobabad where the literacy ratio is pretty low. It was further revealed that the lack of this makes this vulnerable to natural disasters and uncertainties thereby reduction the earning potential of poor families. This truly depicts the perception of the poor people they were not knowing the poverty in real sense. The vulnerability of the poor household becomes evident from a very significant percentage of households without any legal right in all surveyed districts. The main findings of this research seems to suggest that on average of the household income generated from the agriculture and most of the farmers are facing lot of problems regarding availability of water and inputs. By the criterion of derived demand the households from two districts Sukkur and Larkana engaged in productive activities to earn more compare with the Shikarpur and Jacobabad
Keywords: Social, Economic, Poverty, Sindh