STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING – A MESSIAH FOR MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING?
►Haider Shah, Ali Malik and Muhammad Shaukat Malik
When management accounting was introduced as an advanced version of cost accounting after second world war its early advocates had claimed that it would make accounting more useful in assisting managers in their decision making function. As the discipline has failed to live up to the promise now strategic management accounting has been presented as a messiah for the discipline of accounting. New promises have been made that while the traditional management accounting failed to make use of strategic thinking and other qualitative aspects of management the new discipline is likely to make accounting more relevant and important for managers. The empirical evidence on successful diffusion of strategic management accounting is still not overwhelming. It is therefore yet to be seen if strategic management accounting can live up to its promise in future or not.
Keywords: Management, strategic management, cost accounting, strategic management accounting, decision making
AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF MARKETING IN NIGERIA
►OLALEKAN ASIKHIA and E.E. ONI-OJO
The conceptual framework of marketing as well as the laws relating to marketing activities was reviewed. In the investigation, issues pertaining to the contractual relationship, obligation as to title, description, fitness for purpose, condition for merchantable quality, sale by sample, liability in the law of deceit and negligence in the law of Tort as well as regulatory bodies set up to guide marketing activities and possibly protect the consumers in Nigeria were looked into. The article has proven the need for an improvement on this legal framework especially in the tort of Negligence.
Keywords: Marketing, Commercial Law, Law of Torts, Regulatory Organizations, Nigeria
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIAN SMEs: AN EMPIRICAL EXAMINATION ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) SUPPORT AND STRATEGY AS PLAN
►Tan Thai Soon and Fakhrul Anwar Zainol
This research study demonstrates the important of the knowledge creation process. It helps to demonstrate that knowledge management enablers, including IT-support and Strategy as Plan can promote organizational creativity and thus organizational performance. Further, the findings on the new factor, Strategy as Plan, show that it is positively related to knowledge creation. Strategy as Plan can therefore be regarded as an integral part of knowledge creation. This reaffirms Glueck’s (1980, p.9) views of strategy as “a unified, comprehensive, and integrated plan…. designed to ensure that the basic objectives of the enterprise are achieved”. Therefore it can be argued that the best path for Malaysian SMEs to achieve organizational performance is through organizational creativity achieved through a knowledge creation process that involves knowledge enablers.
Keywords: Knowledge Management Enablers, Knowledge Creation Process , Organizational Creativity, Organizational Performance
ASSESSING STRATEGIC TYPOLOGY AND BUSINESS PERFORMANCE: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE IN SMALL CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA
►Shafie Sidek and Fakhrul Anwar Zainol
The research investigates Miles and Snow (1978) strategic typology as the strategic choice and business performance among Class F entrepreneurs in civil construction industry in Malaysia. The result concluded that Prospector strategy is the most effective strategic typology in the small construction industry in Malaysia whereas reactors are the lowest achievers. Analyzer and defender are the moderate class F performers. The most competitive and the destructive strategic typology have been revealed from this study. This is important to serve as a guide to those who involved or intend to be involved in the small construction industry in Malaysia. It is useful for strategist and businessman, especially in the small construction industry in Malaysia to take it as a normative theory which they might practice throughout the daily activities especially during the formation of the business strategy.
Keywords: Strategic Typology, Business Performancess, Class F Entrepreneurs
THE ROLE OF EMAIL IN IMPROVING TASK PERFORMANCE AMONG THE EXECUTIVES IN MALAYSIA
Narges Baninajarian, Zulhamri Abdullah and Jusang Bolong
As new technologies that support managerial communication became widely used, the question of how they influence task performance increases in importance. This study aims to examine the role of email in improving task performance. Specifically, this study attempts to look at how email richness and ease of use can affect task performance. The results of this study revealed that the executives experienced moderate to high level of task performance while using email. The results also showed that the executives perceived email in moderate to high level in richness while they perceived email as an easy to use communication medium. Perceived email richness and perceived email ease of use had a positively significant relationship with task performance. However, the positive correlation coefficient values indicated that the increase in email richness and ease of use perception generates an increase in task performance.
Keywords: task performance; media richness; email use and email ease of use
USING SOCIAL NETWORK PARADIGM FOR DEVELOPING A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK IN CRM
►Mohammad Javad Mosadegh and Mehdi Behboudi
This study develops a conceptual framework for applying social networks in usual CRM models. Recent changing in customer relationship theme and putting new media and network-based paradigm into practice makes it imperative to find how social networks affect CRMs. Accordingly, this study explains the role of social networks in customer relationship management by using its analysis, tools and aspects of this concepts based on CRM models. We have provided a SCRM framework that is based on usual CRM models and incorporates Social networks and its tools, methods and analysis. The framework is combination of Social networks concept and traditional CRM concepts.
Keywords: CRM, Social CRM, Social network, Social network analysis.
RETAINING THE BRAINS, POLICIES ADOPTED BY P.R.CHINA TO ATTRACT AND RETAIN RESEARCH TALENT
►Samina Nawab and Khuram Shafi
The major dilemma of developing countries is that they are continuously facing the Brain Drain. “Brain drain” is defined as situation where people with high skills, qualification, and competency, level quite their native countries and emigrate. The foundation of the interest for skilled migrants is economic. The resultant factor is that the economically countries with developed economies routinely exchange high level skills, while less developed world is being brought into skill shortage and talent from these regions shift to developed regions often on permanent bases. Due to this phenomenon the number of researchers is much higher in the developed countries as compare to developing countries. This paper is an effort to give overview of brain drain of researchers from developing countries mainly focusing on China, mention the factors for which people leave their countries and go abroad, policies adopted by China to address the issue and some suggestions regarding policies that can be adopted to retain the talent that is being continuously drained from the developing countries in form of migration of researchers from the developing to developed countries.
Keywords: Brain Drain, Migration, Developing countries, Researchers
THE WORLD-CLASS SCM MANAGER
►Ali Reza Shahraki and Morteza Jamali Paghaleh
Supply Chain Management is the optimized operation of the supply chain. It requires someone who can optimize the resources while at the same time interacting with the forces that cause pressures against the supply chain. It requires someone who can develop a strategic plan for continuous optimization and improvement. It requires a supply chain manager. So what is a supply chain manager? This individual is someone who can identify the critical resources that move through the supply chain; someone who can identify the forces that come into play and that affect the performance of these resources; and someone who can use this information to develop goals, objectives, and a strategy around which to optimize the flow of the supply chain. This sounds like a big task, and it is. But numerous tools are available to help you with this task, and as we move forward we will learn more about these tools. There are several types of managers, and they can be categorized in numerous ways. One type is the sunrise manager who has a view toward the future, as opposed to the sunset manager who fights fires in the here and now. Another way to classify managers is to consider their attitudes toward their subordinates. The two extremes are the authoritarian manager and the participative manager.
Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Manager, Supply Chain Manager
ASIAN EMERGING ECONOMIES AND UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: DO THEY OFFER A DIVERSIFICATION BENEFIT?
With the emergence of new capital markets and liberalization of stock markets in recent years, there has been an increase in investors' interest in international diversification. This is so because international diversification allows investors to have a larger basket of foreign securities to choose from as part of their portfolio assets, so as to enhance the reward-to-volatility ratio. This paper, thus, studies the issue of co-movement between Asian emerging stock markets and developed economies using the concept of co-integration. Furthermore, it has been observed that there has been increasing interdependence between most of the developed and emerging markets since the 1987 Stock Market Crash. This interdependence intensified after the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. With this phenomenon of increasing co-movement between developed and emerging stock markets, the benefits of international diversification become limited. We have seen that stock markets behavior is random. Several researches have shown that stock markets moves in random and does not affected by any fundamentals. Some authors describe that global sentiments and fundamentals does not prove fruitful in studying the movement of stock markets. Several investment bankers and speculators daily predict the stock market movements of one economy on the basis of stock market movements of another economy. Researches have been conducted with the purpose of finding out the potential for investors to gain from investments in different economies. The paper analyzes the interdependence (if any) of developing or emerging Asian economies and United States of America. And, thus these trends can help the investors to diversify their portfolios. This study is conducted with the objective of finding out the potential for diversification in selected Asian countries and United States of America by studying correlations in the index returns.
Keywords: Asian Emerging Markets, Diversification, Stock Market
RELATION OF NON EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS AND OWNERSHIP CONCENTRATION WITH DISCRETIONARY ACCRUAL ACCOUNTING
In this study we consider the relationship and the effect of performance of non executive directors and ownership concentration on earnings manipulation by company's managers. On the basis of governance rule and also Iran business rule, the companies in Tehran stock exchange should abide about the combination of the board and also interrelated committee and protect minority stockholders against majority. In order to do this research, the information of the companies in financial statements and the reports of the Tehran stock exchange have been used. For the measurements of the earnings smoothing John's adjusted model has been used and for the measurement of the concentration of company's ownership "Herfindal" and "Hireshman" has been used. The choice of the companies is randomly and the confidence interval has been considered %95 .For research , observe 435 corporation- year and time period is 2005 – 2010. The results of the research reveal don't meaningful relationship of non executive directors and discretionary accrual accounting and the relationship is a positive. In companies which the concentration of ownership is high, management and earnings manipulation is also high and has a meaningful relationship and negative with these variables. The segregation of the companies into government and private causes to different the results. In private companies the concentration of the ownership is little and the statistical mean of discretionary accrual accounting items is low and non executive directors ratio is low but in governmental corporations statistical mean of discretionary accrual accounting item is high and ratio of corporations that has internal auditing is high to private corporations . Further more almost of non executive directors in Iranian corporation have nonfinancial technique and knowledge and ratio of them in board corporation is higher than executive directors.
Keywords: discretionary accrual accounting ,non executive director, ownership concentration
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AND BANKS PROFITABILITY IN NIGERIA.
►Obasan Kehinde Agbolade
The role of information in the actualization of various organizational objectives cannot be over-emphasized has it ensure prompt delivery of resources essential to attain an enviable ends. The contemporary business milieu is very dynamic and experiences rapid changes due to creativity, innovation, hi-tech changes, increased perception and demands from clienteles. Business organizations, especially the banking industry is operating in a complex and competitive environment characterized by these changing conditions and highly unpredictable economic climate with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is at the centre of the change curve. Using a primary data sourced through a structured questionnaire administered to selected banks in south-west Nigeria and the Ordinary Least Square approach econometric techniques, this study examined the nature of the relationship that exist between Banks Profitability and the Adoption of Information and Communication Technology. The data analysis showed that a positive correlation exists between ICT and banks profitability in Nigeria. This implies that a marginal change in the level of the investment and adoption of ICT in the banking industry will result to a proportionate increase in the profit level. This is confirmed by the level of the regression coefficient as well as the factor analysis which revealed that an insignificant size of profit exist without the introduction of the ICT.
Keywords: Information, Communication, Profitability,
CUSTOMERS’ PREFERENCE FOR E – BANKING SERVICES: A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED BANKS IN SIERRA LEONE
►R. A. GBADEYAN and O. O. AKINYOSOYE – GBONDA
The development and the increasing progress that is being experienced in the Information and Communication Technology have brought about a lot of changes in almost all facets of life. In the Banking Industry, it has been in the form of online banking, which is now replacing the traditional banking practice. Online banking has a lot of benefits which add value to customers’ satisfaction in terms of better quality of service offerings and at the same time enable the banks gain more competitive advantage over other competitors. There are some associated risks identified in the study that seem to hinder the success of e-banking services and thus constitute major concern to both financial institutions and customers. This paper therefore, examines, if customers’ choice of banks is influenced by the quality of e–banking services provided. Stratified sampling was used; while the survey Instrument was a developed Questionnaire comprising open ended and Likert type of questions. The Likert type questions have a 4 point scale (indicating 1 = very comfortable and 4 = uncomfortable) divided into two (2) sections: personal details and customers’ e-banking preference in Sierra Leone. The instrument contained 36 items and was administered to about 400 respondents, while 360 completed and returned their Questionnaire. The statistical techniques used for the analysis were the Chi–Square and correlation. The Chi–Square analysis revealed that the quality of e–banking services offered by banks have significant influence on their customers at 95%, 3 degree of freedom. The paper recommends that various measures should be put in place to ensure more security such as installation of encrypted software, verification system of customer’s identification cards, frequent change of password, examining test questions and using mixed password such as the use of alphanumeric amongst others. The paper concludes that e –banking has become important phenomenon in the banking industry and it will continue as more progress and innovations are made in information technology.
Keywords: Stratified Sampling, Sierra Leone, Customers’ Preference, E–Banking, Competitive advantage and Pharming.
CUSTOMER & CORE TECHNOLOGY SUPPLIERS: SOME UPSTREAM SUPPLY CHAIN EVIDENCES FROM CONSUMER ELECTRONICS & DURABLE INDUSTRY IN OMAN
►Ambuj Khare, Anurag Saxena and Peeyush Tewari
The paper intends to find the specific factors about the supplier/manufacturer’s that are of concern to the customer in the wider supply chain network. It will also study how these factors affect the sales of CED products. This paper portrays the beliefs of customer about the upstream supplier/ manufacturer and its influence on the sale of white goods and consumer electronics in Oman by using a questionnaire containing questions about the supplier/ manufacturer. Discriminant analysis has been used for predicting a function that throws light on the likely sales. The model was successful in finding a discriminating function that throws light on the effect of supplier/ manufacturer’s profile on the sales of CED products in Oman region. It was able to predict the effect of the specific factors about the supplier/manufacturer’s on the prospective sales of CED products. The sample survey had been administered to 120 customers chosen randomly, 60 from Hyper Markets and 60 from specialized stores in Oman dealing with CED products. Many researchers have dealt with the supply chain problems pertaining to transportation and inventory for the upstream activities. Procurement problems are also taken up but from the perspective of manufacturer. This paper is an attempt to deal with procurement issues from the perspective of the customer.
Keywords: Consumer Electronics Store, Sales, Discriminant Analysis, Upstream Supply Chain
CAUSALITY AMONG NEW YORK, LONDON, TOKYO AND HONG KONG STOCK MARKETS
►Nissim Ben David
Investors tend to look into the possibility of broadening their investment activities across countries in order to diversify portfolio risk. This requires an understanding of regional and global linkages of stock markets. In this study, I examine the co-movements in worlds' largest equity markets. I used the daily data of S&P 500, Nikkey 225, Hang Seng and FTSE100 for the period Jan-Nov 2009 in order to examine causality between the markets. Granger causality results show that eastern markets are affected by both S&P 500 and FTSE100, but do not affect western markets. Estimating the rate of change of each index as a function of its lags and of the lags of indexes that were found to granger-cause it, I find a very low predictability for S&P 500, Hang Seng and FTSE100 ,while the Nikkey 225 is pretty highly predictable.
Keywords: causality; predictability; S&P 500; Hang Seng; FTSE100; Nikkey 225