UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY READINESS, SATISFACTION AND ELECTRONIC WORD-OF-MOUTH ON LOYALTY IN 3C PRODUCTS
This research examines the exogenous antecedents of loyalty in the purchase of 3C products. In the proposed model, we assess how the direct effects of technology readiness, satisfaction, and electronic word-of-mouth on consumers’ loyalty and the indirect effects of technology readiness on loyalty via satisfaction and electronic word-of-mouth. Data was collected via online survey from experienced buyers and users of the leading 3C internet forums in Taiwan. Structural Equation modeling was applied to examine the proposed model. According to the analysis results, loyalty is influenced significantly by technology readiness, satisfaction and electronic word-of-mouth. And, technology readiness has the mediation effects on loyalty via satisfaction and electronic word-of-mouth. Finally, detailed research findings and managerial implications are discussed.
Keywords: Technology Readiness, Satisfaction, Electronic Word-of-mouth, Loyalty
THE IMPACT OF EXCHANGE RATE, FISCAL DEFICIT AND TERMS OF TRADE ON EXTERNAL DEBT OF PAKISTAN
A Cointegration and Causality Analysis
►Asma Awan, Nabeela Asghar and Hafeez ur Rehman
The massive debt burden of Pakistan calls for a detailed analysis of trends in the foreign debt levels, its causative factors and implications for economic growth. The present study is an attempt to analyze the relationship between external debt and exchange rate, fiscal deficit and deterioration of terms of trade for the period 1974-2008. Using Johansen approach, the study found significant long-run relationship between external debt and exchange rate and deterioration of terms of trade. The results of the study revealed that fiscal deficit had no significant impact on external debt. In the short-run all the variables failed to establish relationship with external debt. However, the existence of long-run causality was observed and three channels of uni-directional causalities were found actively running from (i) fiscal deficit to external debt, (ii) terms of trade to exchange rate, and (iii) fiscal deficit to terms of trade. Diagnostic test confirmed the validity of the model and CUSUM and CUSUMSQ test revealed the stability of the model.
Keywords: Foreign debt, Exchange rate, Fiscal deficit, Terms of trade.
THE MOTIVATION BEHIND SUBCONTRACTING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LARGE FIRMS AND SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN THE MOTOR VEHICLE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN KENYA
►Beatrice Auko Okatch, Elegwa Mukulu and Luke Oyugi
The motivation behind subcontracting relationships in the motor vehicle manufacturing The purpose of this study was to determine internal and external constraints to subcontracting arrangements between large firms and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the motor vehicle manufacturing industry in Kenya in order to establish the reasons for the gap in those arrangements. The sector was chosen for the study because of the government’s selection of the sector to promote subcontracting arrangements between small and medium enterprises and large firms in Kenya. Secondly, the sector was chosen because of the complexity of the motor vehicle industry with one motor vehicle comprising about 10,000 component parts, all of which would be difficult for one company to manufacture in-house. The research was mainly qualitative but quantitative data was also used. Content analysis approach was used to analyze the qualitative data and descriptive statistics to analyze the quantitative data. Data was collected from two of the three motor vehicle assembles in Kenya, nine out of thirteen franchise holders and 66 of the 72 component parts suppliers who are mainly small and medium enterprises. The results indicate that the level of subcontracting that takes place in the motor vehicle manufacturing industry is minimal. This is motivated mainly by a desire to remain in the good books of the government. The big enterprises are not willing to buy component parts from local suppliers and especially not local SME suppliers mainly due to the inability of the SMEs to supply quality products to schedule, lack of local suppliers for certain parts, the proliferation of makes and models and competition from imported second hand vehicles from Japan and Europe. The proliferation of makes and models also requires frequent technological changes which both assemblers and SMEs owners find difficult to keep up with. The study recommends that the government should reduce the age of imported second hand vehicles to not more than five years, find a way of compelling the franchise holders and assemblers to buy parts locally and put in place appropriate policies regarding the sector. SMEs should also acquire up to date technology and become more competitive.
Keywords: Motor vehicle assemblers, franchise holders, subcontracting, large firms, Small and medium enterprises.
THE STORY OF EXCHANGE RATE MOVEMENT BY CHINA AND ITS IMPACT ON USA ECONOMY
►Muhammad Akram, Muhammad Ramzan, Sundus Naveed and Saira Hameed
Exchange rate is an important element of the country’s economic health. It is one of the most scrutinized, anatomized and manipulated economic dimension. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of exchange rate of China on the US trade, employment and on its currency as well. The approach to this paper is to answer the questions such as the mechanism selected by China for its exchange rate determination? What are the interests of China in adopting the fixed exchange rate strategy? How this step of China is affecting the U.S.? What steps are taken by USto abandon China’ policy? This paper concludes that US economy is badly affected; China snatches the jobs of US, exports of China rushes towards US economy while imports from US towards China did not come with that pace. This happens because of exchange rate and trade mechanism adopted by China. Moreover this policy of China is beneficial for its economy but not for the well being of the Chinese people. This paper is beneficial for the researchers, students, policy makers, politicians and economists related to international finance area.
Keywords: US dollar, China, Yuan, Fixed Exchange Rate, Floating Exchange Rate, Trade Deficit.
THE BUSINESS MODEL OF A SHANZHAI MOBILE PHONE FIRM IN CHINA
►Jin-Li Hu, Hsiang-Tzu Wan and Hang Zhu
This study defines Shanzhai mobile phone (ShanzhaiGi) as an indigenous innovation product supported by a group of value chain suppliers that provide good-enough products by charging reasonable prices in a rapid time frame to fulfill the needs of target customers. Through examining the business model of Shanzhai mobile phone firms, we find that the value created by them is to provide products that benefit the countryside people so that everyone can get connected. Moreover, ShanzhaiGi offers more features than premium international brands to fulfill the market demand of the masses. Shanzhai mobile phone firms capture values, sales revenues, and market shares through cost control by utilizing Shanzhai’s value chain suppliers and innovative channel management. While contrasting the business model of Tianyu (as the ‘King of Shanzhai’) with other market leaders (Nokia and Samsung), we find that the market leaders have a relatively more developed business model than Tianyu. Therefore, Tianyu should further enhance its segment, value chain relationship, and competitive strategy.
Keywords: Shanzhai; Business model; Value creation
INDIVIDUAL AND STRUCTURAL DETERMINANTS OF INTRINSIC WORK PREFERENCE AMONG FEMALE PUBLIC SERVANTS IN PAKISTAN
►FARIDA FAISAL and MUBBSHER MUNAWAR KHAN
Gender equality in public sector organizations of Pakistan can be sustained by utilizing women’s productive potential, which in turn depends on their work preference. There is a substantial body of literature which establishes a strong linkage between different dimensions of work preference, and demographic and organizational variables. In this paper, the impact of individual and organizational characteristics of Pakistani female public servants, on their intrinsic work preference is thoroughly examined. Cross tabulation shows that compared to the married personnel, unmarried personnel have a greater desire to work outside the home as they find it easier to avoid work-family conflict. ANOVA results reveal relatively less work drive among personnel working in administrative units compared to the teaching and medical professionals. Findings from Regression Analysis underscore positive relationship between personnel’s job preference and quality of the work environment. It is recommended that counseling of female personnel, close to the time they decide to get married, should be an integral part of gender mainstreaming programs. Women who work in non-traditional sectors and senior personnel must receive special encouragement. Monetary incentives must be given to boost the morale of workers in the lower income category.
Keywords: Work Motivation, Organizational Commitment, Work Environment, Public Sector, Gender Equality
DETERMINING GAS PIPELINE OPTIMUM ROUTE BY USING INTEGRATED FAHP/GRA MODEL
►Ali Mohamadi, Payam shojaei
This paper is aimed at selecting optimum route of gas pipeline over three other recommended routes in Fars state by exploiting MCDM. The main criterias used here, include technical and engineering, environmental and socio-economic criterias that are based on sustainable development. Each of these criterias has some subcriterias which we have obtained their importance by FAHP then routes were classified by GRA. One of the advantages of this project is using subjective and objective datas to order alternatives simultaneously. Results show that in spite of the first expectation, the best route is not necessarily the shortest one and by considering sustainable development criterias among these recommended routes the best one is Eghlid to Sadeh.
Keyword: Sustainable development, Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process(AHP), Grey Relation Analysis(GRA), Optimum Route.
IMPEDIMENTS TO WOMEN’S EQUITABLE EMPLOYMENT: GLOBAL SCENARIO
The ambivalent record of progress on issues of gender equality is reflective of the impediments to women’s equitable employment. This paper presents facts on global gender inequality in general, while specifically focusing on gender discrimination in the labour market and formal organisations. The Gender Mainstreaming strategy is presented as a viable option to overcome the obstacles restricting women from attaining their productive potential.
Keywords: gender , women’s equitable employment, gender discrimination
EMOTIVE EFFORT AMONG MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS IN PAKISTAN
The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between work complexity, emotive effort and its effects on job satisfaction and Emotion Management related stress among medical professionals; as in accordance with ‘The Managed Heart’ by Arlie Hochschild, it is asserted that emotive toil is carried out by medical professionals. Correspondence among work complexity, emotive toil and job satisfaction are ascertained by circulating questionnaires among medical personnel. This correspondence is investigated by the use of regression analysis. Conclusions drawn on the basis of analysis disclose that emotive struggle was considerably negatively associated to job satisfaction and work complexity. The research verdicts are only restricted to the medical professionals working in different hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan.
Keywords: Emotive effort, medical professionals, job satisfaction, work complexity
ATTRACTION OF STUDENTS TOWARDS BEAUTY PRODUCTS
►Fouzia Ali, Ali Raza, Syed Usman Izhar, Muhammad Shoaib, Waqas Amin, Muhammad Adnan and Aamir Mehmood
The purpose of this study was to measure the correlation and impact of deceptive beauty advertising (Ads) with and on the buying behavior of the university students toward beauty products. Developed instrument contained nineteen questions. Five point Likert scale was used and the response rate was 94.667%. Two variables were computed; buying behavior of university students towards beauty products was dependent variable; and deceptive beauty ads were independent variable. Descriptive statistics, correlation and liner regression techniques were used with the help of SPSS 16. Positive and significant correlation and impact was found with and on the buying behavior of university students toward beauty products which means that the use of beauty products increases with the increase in deception in beauty products ads. The data were collected from university students and non-serious attitude of students were the limitations of this study. In this study, the main focus was on the buying behavior of students and beauty products ads, and it will serve as a benchmark for prospective researchers for future study.
Keywords: Deceptive advertisements (ads), beauty products, students, Pakistan